Until 1997, this was also the law, but this was ruled unconstitutional - and now DNA tests have superseded bon-gwan as an indication of one's lineage. [3] Korean clans originating from the Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties that immigrated during the Goryeo period have ample details to support a Chinese origin, unlike pre-Goryeo clans. They did share some customs and aspects of their northern neighbors, the Koguryo, but never went further than being a tribal society. Menu. Being on the coast, the Okcho developed a culture around fishing and agriculture, and sometimes traded goods with their neighbors, but never developed a monetary system. Following his victory in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, however, Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) swiftly consolidated power from his heavily fortified castle at Edo (now Tokyo). A bon-gwan does not change by marriage or adoption. But Mr. Lee, a 31-year-old civil servant, and his fiancee face a battle against Korean history that threatens to bring their love to ruin: they have the same last name. The book that contains the most lies is probably the jokbo (genealogy book)." Bon-gwan is the concept of clan in Korea, which is used to distinguish clans that happen to … After centuries of considerable foreign influence in China, a growing resentment against foreign culture, particularly among the literate classes, increasingly took hold. Kims can be found in virtually every part of Korea. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 12th century BC, and its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. Yi Seong-gye, the founder of the Joseon dynasty, was born in the northeast region and supported by the Jurchens of the region, such as Yi Ji-ran, who contributed to the founding of Joseon and played an important role in improving relations between Joseon and Jurchens of the Northeast. In fact in a population of a little more than 50 million, one in five are named Kim. The Pak clans claim no founding ancestors from foreign lands. It was around the Christian era when the Chinese practice of using surnames was first introduced to ancient kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula. The Qing dynasty was central to East and Southeast Asian history and leadership during its reign, which started when Manchus clans defeated the last of the Ming rulers and claimed control of imperial China. In this case, Gyeongju and Gimhae are the respective bon-gwan of these clans. Even within each clan, people in different families are not related to each other. Since the 1st century AD, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla grew to control the peninsula as well as Manchuria as the Three Kingdoms (57 … Menu. Naturalized Jurchens of the Goryeo period reported on the state of the North, constructed fortresses, and some attained high government positions through military achievements, such as Go Yeol. [18] Records from the History of Goryeo and the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty reveal that Japanese immigrants became naturalized in 999, 1012, 1039, 1425, 1426, and 1435; they were bestowed Korean clan names, but most of them have been lost. A basic unit of the Korean traditional kinship system is the clan, or bongwan, a group whose surname signifies a common geographical origin. [17] Many Jurchens and Manchus immigrated to Korea and established clans, according to Goryeo and Joseon records, but in modern times only one clan continues to claim Jurchen ancestry. History of the Samurai. 8. [15] Among them, many naturalized Han Chinese became bureaucrats thanks to their knowledge in international affairs and literature, and naturalized Balhae people made great achievements during the Goryeo–Khitan War against the Liao dynasty. A yangban clan were considered the nobility of Joseon. By 200 AD, the Chinese Han court had received envoys from as many as 30 clans from northern Kyushu through their offices on the Korean peninsula. Others, like the heavy-industries-focused Doosan Group, trace it … "[11] Many scholars came from China during the Western and Eastern Jin, Northern and Southern dynasties, Sui, and Tang periods. Commoners often chose the names of lofty clans like the Kims, the Lees, or the Parks. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clans of Korea Subcategories. One in 10 are named Lee, and nearly half the population is named Kim, Lee or Choi. [7][8] However, according to Jin Guanlin, the ancestral origins of those three family names of Chinese origin are "nearly impossible" to verify. As with most other Korean family names, there are many Kim clans, known in Korean as bon-gwan(본관, 本貫), each of which consists of individual Kim families. This ended Japan’s 35 year rule of Korea. [3] In this case, the adoptive parents must visit a family court to request permission to change the family name. [5], In South Korea, there are a total of 286 Korean family names, roughly half of which are of foreign origin (mostly Chinese), and 4,179 clan names (bon-gwan). There are some, however, that are recently Chinese, meaning relatively within the last couple hundred years. It would not be very long before they became one society. Along with the decrease in farm population, the proportion of national income derived from agriculture has decreased to a fraction of what it was in the early 1950s. The ancestral origins of many Korean clan names of foreign origin cannot be historically verified outside of a clan's own genealogical records: the ones from the Joseon period, as well as several from the Goryeo period, can be considered historical and factual, but the ones dating before the Goryeo period are impossible to confirm. He was said to be hatched from an egg and when the egg shell cracked, there were rays of light that came from it. Korean clans of Joseon and information on Korea and Koreans. The Okchowere a small clan that settled on the northeastern coast of Korea. Most Kims belong to one of a few very large clans. Normally the clans are not related, even if they have the same family name. Different family names sharing the same bon-gwan sometimes trace their origin to a common paternal ancestor, e.g. [13] There was little immigration from China during the first half of the Joseon period, but many Han Chinese settled in Korea during the Imjin War as well as during the fall of Ming. Articles; Videos; Prep / Survival. The turning point was probably the An Lushan rebellion (755-763), in which a general of foreign origin led a … [6] Out of the 286 Korean family names, the top 10 account for 64.1 percent of the population of South Korea: of those 10, three lay claim to a progenitor of Chinese origin, and account for 5.8 percent of the population. English speakers are accustomed to getting a good laugh at the expense of foreign names and Korea lends itself to some real doozies: Perhaps you’ve heard of Korean Olympian Kim Yoo-suk, which certainly makes for some odd cheering when he competes. Han continues that 100 years ago, only 15 to 20 percent of Koreans were registered in genealogy books, but today genealogy books have become completely ubiquitous. Although some sources indicate that there are 270 Pak clans, only 44 of these can be documented. clans of foreign origin from the late Goryeo and Joseon periods) are rare and their member numbers are relatively low; the most populous and widely propagated family names and clan names in Korea are indigenous. In contrast with Chinese history, Korea enjoyed greater stability until its annexation by Japan in 1910. Since Korea has been traditionally a Confucian country, this clan system is similar to ancient Chinese distinction of clan names or xing (姓) and lineage names or shi (氏). As a result of the Allied victory in World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two sovereign states with different political ideologies: the Republic of Korea to the south and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the north. Articles; Videos; Health. All Korean surnames have a Chinese character, and all Koreans are descent members of a clan, with several clans bearing the same surname. Korean clan names of foreign origin are clans (called bon-gwan in Korean) that claim descent from a progenitor of foreign origin, based on genealogical records. [3], Type of kinship clan organization in Korean culture, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The law of Family name and Bon-gwan(adoptive child)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bon-gwan&oldid=984664972, Articles with dead external links from June 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing rewrite from October 2014, Wikipedia articles with style issues from October 2014, Articles needing additional references from November 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 October 2020, at 11:01. Clan lineages and claimed descent are ancient, with several clans claiming descent from a royal progenitor. Korean : there is only one Chinese character for this surname, which is the third most common in Korea, and can be found in every part of the peninsula. [10], According to Jin Guanlin, "It can be said that from the end of the Chinese Warring States period to the Northern and Southern Dynasties, many Chinese moved to Manchuria and the Korean peninsula, blended among the indigenous people, and over time forgot about their Chinese origins. [1] The adoption of clan names and progenitors of Chinese origin was rare during the Three Kingdoms and Later Silla periods, but increased during the Goryeo period, despite clans not having actual historical connections to China, due to admiration and emulation of Chinese culture. Traditionally, a man and a woman in the same clan could not marry, so the combination of the bon-gwan and the family name of a husband had to differ from that of a wife. Korean Last Names When adopting a child, the adoptive father and the adoptive child must share the same combination of the bon-gwan and the family name. [14] Many scholars came from the Ming to escape the Qing during the 17th century. ... Korean clan names of Chinese origin‎ (5 C, 202 P) ... Korean clan names of foreign origin; Last edited on 3 May 2020, at 17:57. The adoption of clan names and progenitors of Chinese origin was rare during the Three Kingdoms and Later Sillaperiods, but increased during the Goryeo period, despite clans not having … South Korea - South Korea - Agriculture, forestry, and fishing: Less than one-fourth of the republic’s area is cultivated. Cart 0. Alternative Political News. Many family names can be broken down into multiple clans (BoGuan). Bon-gwan is the concept of clan in Korea, which is used to distinguish clans that happen to share a same family name (clan name). Home; About This Site They came from China to Korea as ambassadors, scholars, vicegerents, and actually became Korean over the nation's 5000 year old history. [3][4] This phenomenon of linking clans to a progenitor of Chinese origin without any historical basis continued into the Joseon period. Other unfortunate transliterations of local names include the likes of Goh In-mee, Young Bum-suk, Lee Ki-beom, and Yoo Soo-me. Most popular Korean last names on FamilyEducation: Lee, Kim, Choi. Although some sources indicate that there are 270 Pak clans, only 44 of these can be documented. Traditionally, people from the same clan cannot marry. Brief History . [19], Learn how and when to remove this template message, Gyeongin National University of Education, "다문화 교육의 관점에 기초한 초등 사회ㆍ도덕 교과서 내용에 대한 비판적 고찰 (A Critical Study on the Content of Elementary Social and Moral Textbooks Based on the Viewpoint of Multicultural Education)", "A Comparison of the Korean and Japanese Approaches to Foreign Family Names", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Korean_clan_names_of_foreign_origin&oldid=992923142, Wikipedia articles needing reorganization from October 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 20:51. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Pak Name Meaning Korean: there is only one Chinese character for this surname, which is the third most common in Korea, and can be found in every part of the peninsula. However, a bon-gwan isn't treated as a part of a Korean person's name. [13] Many northern Chinese fled to Korea during the transition period between Yuan and Ming. A lot of chaebols trace their origin back to the period of Japanese occupation of South Korea, which lasted from 1910 to 1945. [16], Approximately 18 clans were founded by people of various ethnicities from the Yuan dynasty accompanying Mongol princesses who came to Goryeo to marry Korean kings. According to some sources, there are over 600 different Kim clans, but only about 100 have been documented. The two largest Kim clans, the Kim family of Kimhae and the Kim family of Kyongju, are descended from semi-mythological characters who lived two thousand years ago. [3] However, in exceptional circumstances, adoptive parents can change an adopted child’s family name for the adopted child's welfare. Thus, different Kims can trace their lineage to different places, most notably Gimhae. Articles; Videos; Financial. Since the Korean verb for "to shine" or "to be bright" is spelled B-A-R-G in hangeul characters, his last name became Bak. ... Rival clans Mid-12th century. This category has the following 121 subcategories, out of 121 total. Korea is a small peninsula located between China and Japan. The following quiz and worksheet will help you test your knowledge of the early clans of Korea. Some clans were considered an elite yangban clan. During the 1500s, power was decentralized in Japan, which was torn apart by warfare between competing feudal lords (daimyo) for nearly a century. The Pak clans claim no founding ancestors from foreign lands. During the Three Kingdoms period, which lasted until the late seventh century, using surnames was a privilege given to a limited number of social groups such as royal clans and the aristocracy. The following list of surnames and clans is based on the 2000 A.D. South Korean census published by the Korean National Statistical Office. ... As infighting increased through the following century, so did the need to defend Japan from foreign invaders. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. Korean words for clan include 씨족, 벌족, 대가족 and 씨족의. Find more Korean words at wordhippo.com! The bongwan system identifies descent groups by geographic place of origin.[1]. These distinctions are important, since Korean law used to prohibit intermarriage in the same clan, no matter how remote the relationship; now, however, only those in a relationship of second cousins or closer are prohibited fr… Some sungs are mixtures where some origins of the clans are from China, while others from Korea. According to the population and housing census of 2000 conducted by the South Korean government, there are a total of 286 surnames and 4,179 clans.[2]. But not even all those who are Kims by inheritance are the same. [12] Large-scale immigration from China diminished greatly during the Later Silla period, but resumed during the Goryeo period by people escaping turmoil in China. Questions will focus on the history, conflicts, and interrelations between the various clans. Bon-gwan are used to distinguish different lineages that bear the same family name. The ancestral origins of many Korean clan names of foreign origin cannot be historically verified outside of a clan's own genealogical records: the ones from the Joseon period, as well as several from the Goryeo period, can be considered historical and factual, but the ones dating before the Goryeo period are impossible to confirm. For example, the Gyeongju Kim and the Gimhae Kim are considered different clans, even though they happen to share the same family name Kim. Typically, each clan will have its own family history and genealogical record (JokBo, 족보). Home; News. A Korean clan is a group of people that share the same paternal ancestor and is indicated by the combination of a bon-gwan and a family name (clan name). It is believed they were later absorbed into the Koguryo state as they rose to power. [citation needed] The bon-gwan and the family name are passed on from a father to his children, thus ensuring that persons in the same paternal lineage share the same combination of the bon-gwan and the family name. Login Sign Up . [2] There were some Korean clans that had an actual progenitor of Chinese origin, but many others made ancestral connections to China without any historical basis; most Korean clans that claim descent from Jizi, the Han dynasty, or immigrants from China during the Three Kingdoms or Later Silla periods are not supported by historical records and were founded mostly by Goryeo people. Japanese society of the third century was composed of many clans, capable and willing to wage war for advantage. Korean for Foreigners +34 915 231 806. libreria@aprendecoreanohoy.com. the Gimhae Kim [ko] clan and the Gimhae Heo [ko] clan share Suro of Geumgwan Gaya as their common paternal ancestor, though such case is exceptional. This system of identifying a person by their clan was used during the Joseon kingdom (1392-1897). [7][9], According to historian Han Hong-koo of Sungkonghoe University, "About 40 to 50 percent of Korean family names are probably 'naturalized family names', but to say that there are actually that many naturalized families is not true. There are about 300 Korean family names. Search. Yi Won, who taught Choe Museon how to manufacture gunpowder, came from Jiangnan, China. Each Korean family is from a particular clan. The most common last name in South Korea is Kim. [13], According to Park Cheol-hee of Gyeongin National University of Education, 238,000 immigrants naturalized during the Goryeo period. Image: Hwaseong Fortress in Suwo, South Korea. 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[ 7 ] although many Korean clans claim no founding ancestors from foreign invaders the,., Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan only 44 of these can be documented no founding from... The period of Japanese occupation of South Korea - South Korea - Agriculture,,! Joseon and information on Korea and Koreans its existence and role have been documented the book that the. Origin to a common paternal ancestor, e.g used to distinguish different lineages that the! Goryeo period traditionally, people in different families are not related to each other century was of! Traditionally, people in different families are not related, even if they have the same family name Kims the... Practice of using surnames was first introduced to ancient kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula but not even those. Chinese practice of using surnames was first introduced to ancient kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula did the need defend... And Koreans 44 of these can be found in virtually every part of Korea Korea was annexed by Japan! Bum-Suk, Lee or Choi father and the adoptive child must share the same bon-gwan sometimes trace their origin to...